This district is in north-central San Diego County in the general vicinity of the towns of Julian and Banner about 50 miles northeast of San Diego. It is at the north end of a belt of gold mineralization that extends south and southwest through the Cuyamaca, Deer Park and Pine Valley districts.
Placer mining may have been first done here in the 1840s. The first lode claims, the George Washington and Van Wert, were located in 1870, and the Julian mining district was organized in that same year, named for Mike Julian, the recorder. Many other claims were located soon afterward. The greatest period of mining activity was from 1870 to 1880, a peak output of $500,000 having been attained in 1874. There was another period of activity from 1888, when the Gold King and Gold Queen mines were discovered, until about 1896. Since then there has been intermittent exploration and development work, particularly at the Golden Chariot and other nearby mines, but very little recorded output. The value of the total production from the district is estimated at $5 million.
Most of the important deposits are in or adjacent to a one- to two-mile-wide northwest-trending belt of mica schist, gneiss, and quartzite of the Julian Schist (Triassic?). On either side of this belt are quartz diorite and schist. The northwest-trending Elsinore fault extends through the area.
The ore bodies occur in lenticular quartz veins ranging from a few inches to about five feet in thickness. The veins strike northwest and dip to the northeast. The ore contains native gold and varying amounts of auriferous sulfides. Also present are small amounts of gold tellurides. Most of the ore shoots had stoping lengths of 100 feet or less, although one at the Owens mine was 400 feet. Surface ores mined during the early days contained considerable rich "jewelry" material, but at depth the ore is low in grade. The deepest working is 350 feet.
C. B. Chieftain, Cincinnati Belle, Eagle Elevada, Gardner $200,000, Gold Cross, Gold King, Golden Chariot $700,000, Gopher, Helvetia $450,000, Hidden Treasure, Kentuck group, Madden group, North Hubbard $200,000, Owens $450,000, Ranchita $150,000, Ready Relief $500,000, Redman, San Diego, Shamrock, Van Wert.
Crawford, J. J., 1894, Gold-San Diego County: California Min. Bur. Rept. 12, pp. 237-243.
Creasey, S. C., 1946, Geology and nickel mineralization of the Julian-Cuyamaca area, California: California Div. Mines Rept. 42, pp. 15-29.
Donnelly, Maurice, 1934, Gealogy and mineral deposits of the Julian district: California Div. Mines Rept. 30, pp. 331-370.Hanks, H. G., 1886, Julian mining district: California Min. Bur. Rept. 6, pt. I, pp. 82-89.
Merriam, Richard, and Stewart, R. M., 1958, Geology and mineral resources of the Santa Ysabel quadrangle, San Diego County, California: Califarnia Diy. Mines Bull. 177, 42 pp.
Merrill, F. J. H., 1916, San Diego County, Julian district: California Min. Bur. Rept. 14, pp. 653-660.
Tucker, W. B., 1925, Gold-San Diego County: California Min. Bur. Rept. 21, pp. 331-349.
Weber, F. Harold, Jr., 1963, San Diego County, gold: California Div. Mines and Geology County Rept. 3, pp. 115-167.