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The central part of the Sonora district is underlain by a belt of crystalline limestone, which extends south from Columbia. The limestone is associated with slate, schist, and quartzite all are part of the Calaveras Formation (Carboniferous to Permian). To the west is amphibolite and to the east is granodiorite.
The gold-quartz veins are largely confined to the slate, schist, and amphibolite. Much of the output from the lode mines has been from small but extremely rich pockets. The high-grade are commonly contains crystallized gold, and in a few places the telluride minerals petzite and sylvanite are present. The veins, usually only a few feet wide, are often associated with diorite and aplite dikes. The rich early-day placer deposits were in deep crevices and potholes in the limestone.
Aetna, Bonanza $1.5 million, Eureka, Fairview, Gerrymander, Golden Gate $100,000+, Hope $200,000+, Josephine, Lazar $100,000+, Lewis, Manzanita, O'Hara $100,000+, Rainbow, San Guiseppe, Sell, Stockton, Stuart and Morris, Sugarman $1 million, Tanzy, Vandelier.
Eric, J. H., Stromquist, A. A., and Swinney, C. M., 1955, Geology and mineral deposits of the Angels Camp and Sonora quadrangles: California Div. Mines Spec. Rept. 41, 55 pp.
Logan, C. A., 1949, Tuolumne County, gold: California Jour. Mines ond Geology, vol. 45, pp. 54-75.
Tucker, W. B., 1916. Tuolumne County, gold: California Min. Bur. Rept. 14, pp. 135-168.
Turner, F.L., and Ransome, F.L., 1897, Sonora folio: U. S. Geol. Survey Geol. Atlas of the U.S., folio 41, 7 pp.
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